Second Saudi State
In 1818 after Ibrahim Pasha withdrew his forces from Najd by order of his father Muhammad Ali. Muhammad Ibn Mu’ammar went to al-Diri yah to rule and moved to it and rebuilt it. But Muammar’s son did not last long. Mashari bin Saud (brother of Abdullah bin Saud, the last ruler of the first Saudi state) managed to escape from the Egyptians and return to the tattoos. But to give up his judgment.
The son of Mu’ammar went from Jiraiya to Siddus where he claimed the disease and then sent to Faisal al-Dawish asking him to extend it and sent him some of his followers. As a result, the son of Muammar moved his armies to al-Dariyah and arrested Mishari bin Saud. Then he moved by his army to Riyadh and took over. Turki bin Abdullah was in Riyadh but he managed to escape.
He went to Riyadh and captured his son Mishari, her emir, where he was imprisoned with his son and sent to his family in Siddus to return the Meshary al Saud to Riyadh, but the people of Siddus were afraid of the wrath of the leader. Turki Abush Agha Vslmoh Meshary Ben Saud, who died in prison ordered Turki to kill the son of Muammar and his son (1).
Imam Turki bin Abdullah succeeded in the establishment of the second Saudi state in 1824 – 1240 AH after he managed to recover Riyadh and took it as the capital of the state and managed to extend its influence in most of the regions ruled by the first Saudi state except Hijaz and the southern regions.
In 1834, Imam Turki was assassinated by the prince of Mishari bin Abdulrahman. Forty days later, Faisal ibn Turki regained power after he killed Machari in revenge for his father.
Mohammed Ali decided to send a military campaign 1252 H-1836 led by Ismael Agha and Khalid bin Saud Al-Kabeer and defeated the campaign. Mohammed Ali, led by Khurshid Pasha and governor of Hijaz, Faisal surrendered and lost Riyadh and could not retrieve it and ended his first term of exile to Egypt. Abdullah bin Thunayyan rose up against Khaled and was able to gather people around him. (3) The rule of Khalid bin Saud ended in 1257 AH-1841 and Faisal managed to escape with the help of Abbas Pasha.
After his escape and his return, Faisal was able to capture Abdullah bin Thunayan and restore his rule to begin his second term in 1259 AH.
After the death of Faisal in 1282 AH – 1865, his son Abdullah took his mother, but a war began between him and his brother Saud. Saud went to Asir and did not find support to go to Najran and supported by its president and then equipped Abdullah Army led by his brother Mohammed could defeat the forces of Saud 1283 e. After Saud regained his strength in the eastern region, he managed to fight the army of his brother Mohammed and his family and then went to Riyadh, where Abdullah came out and entered Saud, but the people of Riyadh revolted against him under the leadership of his uncle Abdullah bin Turki and defeated Saud and returned to Abdullah.
Saud then tried to enter Riyadh and succeeded where Abdullah fled. After that Abdul Rahman bin Faisal returned and when he arrived in Riyadh and found his brother Saud outside Riyadh has died sick, Abdul Rahman took power. But Abdullah bin Faisal joined the tribe of Atiba to his side to grab the government and Abdul Rahman abdicated him to govern (4) That happened in 1293 – 1876.
In the midst of this war, Mohammed al-Rashid fights with the forces of Abdullah bin Faisal in Umm al-Asafir and Rashid’s son wins. Then the sons of Saud bin Faisal moved to Riyadh and arrested their uncle Abdullah and took the rule 1305 AH, so Ibn Rashid went to Riyadh and reconciled with the sons of Saud to get out of Riyadh and release their uncle Abdullah, and then became Riyadh under the control of Mohammed bin Abdullah Bin Rashid, and appointed Salem bin Sbahan prince of it, which killed three sons of Saud, which angered the House of Saud and the son of Rashid, he was isolated and appointed Fahad bin Rakih (5).
In 1307 AH, Prince Mohammed bin Rashid of Abdullah bin Faisal and his brother Abdul Rahman returned to Riyadh and Abdullah was sick and died two days after his arrival. Rashid bin Rashid feared that Abdul Rahman regained power and returned Salim bin Sabhan to the presidency and was able to Abdul Rahman arrested Salem Vtaiha Ben Rashid for the invasion in 1308 e. The two parties negotiated and agreed that Abdul Rahman Abdul Rahman in front of Al-Kharj and Al-Bared and released Bin Sabahan and called Rashid bin of their families from the Saud in 1307 AH. And rallied to repel the men of Buraydah, Onaiza, Qaseem, Odaiba and Mutair, and the two gatherings in Qur’an, on January 15, 1891. And favouring the hands of the people of Al-Qassim Rashid Ibn Rashid to the trick, pretending to defeat, and continue to track him. And established them in the west of Qassim and went to war, and dispersed them. Imam Abdul Rahman had been assisted by the people of Qassim, before the disaster them. He gathered a crowd of people of the bidder and went to support the people of Qassim from the attack of Ibn Rashid. But when he reached Al-Khafas about 115 km from Riyadh, the news came to him about the end of the battle, and the victory of Ibn Rashid, he thought back to Riyadh and realized that Rashid’s son was creeping to him and was aware of the weakness of his military position after the Battle of the Miles, which took place in 1308 AH – 1891. Therefore, Imam Abdul Rahman went out with his family from Riyadh, in search of safety. And headed to the areas between the Yibreen Oasis and Al Ahsa. Try to regain Riyadh. He gathered his supporters from the desert. He and his followers attacked and captured the town of Dulm. Then went to Riyadh, and entered in the year 1309 e – 1891 m. From Riyadh, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman went to al-Mu’amil and went down to Hirmila. When news reached Imam Abdulrahman bin Rashid, a faster army from Hail. The two men met in Huraira. Abdul Rahman was defeated and entered the son of Rashid Riyadh. And kept Mohammed bin Faisal, Prince of it. He returned to Hail. The battle of Harelima destroyed the hopes of Imam Abdul Rahman to continue his struggle. And looked back to his camp in the Badia, was recognized by his son Abdul Aziz, and was the scene of Hreila, and the end of the second period.
Imams of the Second Saudi State
Turki bin Abdullah bin Mohammed bin Saud first period (1819-1820)
Turki bin Abdullah bin Mohammed bin Saud second period (1824-1834)
Mishari Bin Abdul Rahman (1834-1834)
Faisal bin Turki first period (1834-1838)
Khalid bin Saud Bin Abdul Aziz Bin Mohammed Bin Saud (commissioned by the Egyptians) (1838-1841)
Abdullah bin Thunayan bin Ibrahim bin Saud bin Thunayan (1841-1843)
Faisal bin Turki second period (1843-1865)
Abdullah bin Faisal bin Turki first period (1865-1871)
Saud bin Faisal bin Turki first period (1871-1871)
Abdullah bin Faisal bin Turki second period (1871-1873)
Saud bin Faisal bin Turki second period (1873-1875)
Abdul Rahman bin Faisal first period (1875-1876)
Abdullah bin Faisal bin Turki third period (1876-1889)
Abdul Rahman bin Faisal II period (1889-1891)