King Abdul Aziz

King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal (1293 H \ January 15, 1876 AD – 1373H \ November 9, 1953 m), the founder of modern Saudi Arabia and the first king of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Born in Riyadh for the ruling Al Saud family in Najd, and when he reached the age of ten he moved with his family to Qatar and Bahrain and then to Kuwait and were greeted by the emir Mubarak Al-Sabah after the victory of Al Rashid, Hail princes of the Al-Saud, and spent his childhood there. His father Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Last imams of the second Saudi state.
Scurry Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman and his followers, who numbered forty, sixty and was told, a man, 21 years old Ramadan 1319 H \ January 2, 1902 m, from Kuwait, heading for Riyadh to Break masmak fort, a governor’s residence. And the restoration of Riyadh, Abdul Aziz, the first building block in the construction of the state, and the stage of consolidation mode. The post-recovery of Riyadh, the most important stages in the history of Abdul Aziz, as he spent more than twenty years in the battles and wars, on more than one front.
King Abdulaziz known among the Arabs in the name of Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud when West title the Western media in 1934 Otto von Bismarck and Napoleon Arabs Arabs and Oliver Cromwell desert.

Percentage

Is the King Abdul Aziz bin Imam Abdul Rahman bin Imam Feisal bin Imam Turki bin Prince Abdullah bin Saud bin Abdulaziz bin Imam Muhammad bin Saud bin Mohammed bin Sultan bin Markhan bin Ibrahim bin Musa bin Rabia bin Mani bin Rabia Mureydi and Marada of Hanifa of Bakr bin Wael bin Qasit which ends in Rabia ibn Nizar bin Adnan bin contagious.

 

His life before he came to power

When Prince Mohammed bin Abdullah Rasheed charge of dominating the Ottoman Empire at the time Qassim whole was left of the cities of the Second Saudi State, but Riyadh at the time was Abdul Aziz, 10 years old, and when they approached ordered forward Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Abdulaziz go to the desert and actually did it and started the war between the forward Abdul Rahman and Al Rashid Abdul Rahman, but the failure of the defeat and occupied Riyadh went to Qatar, Bahrain and Kuwait arrived he settled there and was the emir Mubarak Al-Sabah has received Abdul Aziz Abdul Rahman and his father. When he was in Kuwait Abdul Aziz policy learning and assemblies and methods of warfare and it was moving to Kuwait in 1310 AH where he remained for eight years into the war began between him and al-Rashid in the year 1318 AH, and recovered Riyadh in 1319 AH.

The beginning of his reign

In 1900 the corresponding 1318 AH when Abdul Aziz was 17 years old, he asked Abdel-Aziz from his father, Imam Abdel-Rahman, to allow him to restore the rule of his family, but his father did not allow him to do so, for fear of the enemy, who surpassed in numbers, equipment, but Abdul-Aziz he persuaded his father, he took the company of 72 men to restore Riyadh in 1901, corresponding to 1319 AH after serving for so in an oasis Yprin on the edge of the Empty quarter south of the Arabian Peninsula and has then to gather supporters of the tribes of the desert to provide support and support for him after a while, people have lost the House of Saud. He then went to the southern provinces of the find, which is the output and Hawtat Bani Tamim, fire, fallow and Wadi propellants, Fastrdha of Al Rashid in year 1321 AH / 1903. Qassim and then recovered in 1905/1324.
In the two years since the fall of Telia Riyadh, Ibn Saud continued to dominate the rest of the find, which summoned the son of Rashid seek the aid of the Ottoman Empire. So it sends power to defeat it, and was able to force the Turkish defeat Ibn Saud, but he was able to restructure its forces after the departure of the Turkish troops because of problems in Supply in the Arabian Peninsula.
In 1334 AH / 1915, Britain entered into a treaty or Darren Qatif with Ibn Saud, which destroys the land controlled by Ibn Saud protect against the defeat of Ibn Saud al-Rasheed loyal to the Ottoman state.
Abdulaziz (who tried to maintain the state away from getting involved in the war did not try) to do any offensive action against the Son of good strong rivals.
In 1338 AH / 1919 launched Brotherhood loyalists of King Abdul Aziz, an attack on Sharif Hussein Sharif of Mecca in the Battle of the soil and easy Alvaour supervision of the army in to Taif withdrew Sharif Abdullah Bin Hussein Al-Hada to the suburbs of Taif. By the year 1341 AH 1922 was able to control the territory, which was under the control of Sharif Hussein bin Ali. Crowned Abdul Aziz victories by defeating Sharif Hussein in 1344 AH / 1925, the same year in which the Muslim Brotherhood launched an attack on Transjordan at the behest of King Abdul Aziz.

Hijazi war

Declined to King Abdul Aziz during the First World War from taking any military action against the Sharif Hussein, and focused his efforts on fighting the son of Rashid biased to the Ottoman state, but skirmishes between the two sides in both the soil and Khurmah about the subordination of any territory, as Abdul Aziz believes they are from land We find, while Sharif Hussein sees that they of Alhijaz.ovi Shaban 1337 AH / 1918 creep Abdullah, son of Sharif Hussein to “soil Bakom” and occupied after almost free of her family and after resisting as long as a full day of Bakom remaining in the soil who refused unless the defense of the soil against Sharif and his army, and they are few.
Resistance in Munif Palace and several places in the soil, as long as the last one in Shangil Castle and ended after sunset that day, most Bakom turned to free Bakom Aatzala war and impartiality of the Brotherhood and Mwalathm of King Abdul Aziz and Aatzalhm of the war because of the presence of the Knights of Bakom with Sharif under the brigade commander Abdul Osais God and also the presence of the Knights of Bakom with Brothers band under the banner of the leader Hazza yellow.
The evacuation and retirement orders of Prince Mohammed Bin Ghannam Amir Bakom. This was the twenty-fourth of August, and the next day I arrived Brothers Band to the soil Bakom companions were Sharif Abdullah Bin Al Hussein army in and around the Palace Munif in soil and so on / Shaban / 251 337 AH.
It is therefore concluded Bakom split into four sections and each section has an opinion:
Section I: They mostly have Depart war with Prince Mohammed bin Ghannam.
Section II: They are those who refused to retire and have the resistance and to defend the soil against Sharif and a small number.
Section III: They joined the army of the Muslim Brotherhood, led by the yellow Hazza and other sheikhs Bakom.
Section IV: They were with Sharif Army, led by Abdullah Osais.
After the war became Bakom soil under the rule of King Abdul Aziz, who settled for a period of two weeks and arranges Hoanha equips its people to join the army of the Muslim Brotherhood, led by Prince Mohammed bin Ghannam Buqami.
After that Abdul Aziz was keen to take Saudi Arabia neutral in World War II position.
After that Saudi forces participated in the 1948 war in Palestine.
The British government realized the power of Abdul Aziz and control over most of Saudi Arabia, current, and pushed it Abdul Aziz ibn Saud to hold the Jeddah treaty with Britain in 1927, ending 1915 Darren agreement mentioned above. Meanwhile, Abdul-Aziz is the title of Sultan of Najd and accessories to the king of Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd.
It is the year 1346 AH in 1927 to the year 1351 1932 Abdul Aziz was able to control most of the Arabian Peninsula. So he changed the named of the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd to Saudi Arabia, and thus became king on the nascent UK.
On 17 May 1351/1932, King Abdul Aziz issued a decree announcing the unification of the Kingdom system, determine on Thursday, 21 May days to announce consolidated under the name of “Saudi Arabia”; all parts of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Vetohdt officially Day 21-5 -1351 e / m 09/22/1932.

Achievements during his reign

The unification of most of the territories of the Arabian Peninsula under the name Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
The emergence of the first ministry established in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Ministry of Foreign Affairs and dated it 1349/1930. It was called the Directorate-General of Foreign Affairs, and the first secretary of state is Prince Faisal bin Abdul Aziz.
The emergence of the Ministry of Defence in the UK, which was established in the spring of the second year of the 1365 March 6, 1946 and was called the Defense Agency before.
The appearance of the interior ministry and appointed Prince Faisal bin Abdul Aziz in 1350 AH / 1931 AD minister as the security and internal affairs within the Public Prosecution tasks In 1370 H, corresponding to 1950, the public prosecutor turned into integrated Ministry of the Interior
The establishment of the Ministry of Finance and was called General Directorate of Finance and the appointment of Abdullah Bin Sulaiman Al-Hamdan, Minister of her
Shura Council of the emergence of the Kingdom has been machined from a full-time members of the construction of the Royal Decree No. 37 dated 09/01/1346 H / 17.07.1927 m.
Hold the first elections in the state it was the year 1343 AH / 1924
The establishment of the Ministry of Communications in 1372 AH / 1953.
The first commercial system for court appearance in 1350/1931.
The first system for banks emerged in 1347 AH / 1928.
The first system to manage the Hajj in Saudi emergence issued in 1346 AH.
The emergence of the first system of roads and buildings in the UK in 1360.
The first system for industrial and commercial chamber in Jeddah appearance in 1365.
The first system for phones in the UK appearance in 1356 AH.
The founding of the first system to unify the stamps in 1369.
Establishing the first system of lightning in the year 1356 AH.
Establishing the first system of the Society ambulance charity in 1354 AH.
Establishing the first system of hospitals in the UK in 1354 AH.
Establish the first police directorate in Mecca in 1343 AH.
The first ice factory in the Kingdom of the founding issued in 1338 AH.
The founding of the first Saudi mission to study the security 1370 e.
The first shipment of Saudi oil to the world in the year 1358 AH / 1939 AD and that the port of Ras Tanura in unstressed, which was inaugurated by King Abdul Aziz field.
The emergence of the first royal decree.
The emergence of the first royal decree radio was his number 7/3/16/3996 dated 23/09/1368 AH (1949 AD), where commissioning of King Abdul Aziz to his son and his deputy were in the Hejaz Prince Faisal supervise the radio.
The establishment of the Department of Agriculture in 1361 AH / 1942.
The establishment of the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency was established by royal ordinances and 30/14/1/1046 No. 1047 issued on 25 Rajab 1370 AH April 20, 1951 m and opened its head office in the city of Jeddah on 14 Muharram 1372 AH / October 4, 1952 m.
The establishment of Saudi Arabian Airlines, which so named on the day of call. Which became known in the late fifties Saudi Arabian Airlines.
It originated the idea of ​​the railway in 1367 and his Anthih in 1371 e linking Riyadh Dammam.
Rafha founding of the province in the year 1370 AH.
Establishment of the first administration in the UK to take care of the young.
The establishment of public Hajj Directorate in 1365 AH / 1946.
The verdict was announced, a royal regime in 1351/1932.
Delivery of the crown prince for the first time of Prince Saud bin Abdul Aziz.
Transfer the title of Sultan of Hijaz and we find in 1345 AH / 1926 to the king of Hejaz and Najd.
The establishment of the Council of Ministers in 1372 AH / 1953, and the appointment of Prince Saud bin Abdul Aziz, Chairman.
Drilling the first oil field in 1359 AH / 1940 m near Dhahran.
Prince Saud bin Abdul Aziz, the appointment of a deputy to the king in the central and eastern regions and Prince Faisal bin Abdul Aziz, deputy to the king in the Hijaz.
Several mosques in Riyadh and the opening of several colleges in Abha.
Another achievement of King Abdul Aziz, is that the King presides over the Shura Council session was the meeting called the King Abdul Aziz’s meeting, because it is the last meeting chaired in his life.
Wars.

King Abdul Aziz’s position during World War I.

Politically to the side of the Allies, but from the military point of view he did not take any action or take part in any battle unless they pour I. Above all primarily as in his favor.
Britain has been throughout the period prior to the war to avoid entering into any kind of relationship with him and stand a negative attitude towards what is shown repeatedly to find some kind of relationship saves him a bit of a balance with constant Ottoman pressure against him, if the after the war accelerated access to him and led to the negotiations for the conclusion of Darren treaty known as the Treaty on 18 Safar 1334 AH / December 26, 1915 AD. King Abdul Aziz biased and considered along with Britain and its allies against the Ottoman Empire and its allies.

Battles during the unification of the Kingdom

The battle-year (Hijri) Year (AD) the other party
Battle opening Riyadh 1319 e = 1902 forces son Ajlan
Battle Dalam = 1320 e 1902 Abdul Aziz forces tired Rasheed
Battle of bekeriyah 1322 e 1904 Abdul Aziz forces tired Rasheed
Battle of shinanah 1322 e 1904 Abdul Aziz forces tired Rasheed
Battle kindergarten Muhanna 1324 1906 Abdul Aziz forces tired Rasheed
Battle terminal 1325 AH 1907 troops Hamoud Sultan Rashid and Mohammed bin Abdullah Al-Muhanna and Faisal bin Sultan Duweish
Battle Abe Millet 1329 e 1911 Afas bin visage and rogue Aldat forces from Alroukh of Otaiba
Battle Ahsa 1331 e 1912 Turkish garrison Palace Kut
Battle pod 1333 e 1915 troops Saud al-Aziz al-Rashid
Battle Kinsan 1333 e 1915 Orlando Bloom Files forces
Repast pond 1336 1918 e tribe forces of tan Electric Company
Battle soil 1337 1919 e-Sharif forces Abdullah I of Jordan
Battle Hgela 1338 e 1920 Hassan bin Ayed forces
Battle Harmalah 1339 e 1921 Hassan bin Ayed forces
Battle of sabilla 1347 e 1929 Brotherhood-led forces and Duweish Faisal Sultan Bin Bejad
Battle of Jabal Shammar 1348 e 1929, led by Abdul Aziz bin Faisal bin Sultan Duweish Brotherhood forces
Battle Jazan 1351 1932 Hassan Idrissi forces

US relations

In February 1950, in a small and secret mission, he sent the US ambassador to Saudi Arabia a request to the US State Department, to assist Ibn Saud for the treatment of chronic arthritis and suffered debilitating injury. It was intended to King Abdul Aziz Al Saud, who was known in the West simply as Ibn Saud. And causing foot pain and swelling caused by arthritis to restrict his movement significantly and made him use a wheelchair, and when he saw the Americans, he called one of them when he “was moving those close to him to hear his bones creak.”
This request came at a time when US-Saudi relations marked by turmoil. It was the United States leases Dhahran Airport, but a large number of Saudis, led by the clergy, were conservative and reject any American military presence in their country. The King Abdul Aziz Al Saud itself is still reticent about America’s recognition of the State of Israel. There were negotiations were under way on how to divide the Aramco oil company profits that are involved in the ownership of a Saudi and American companies.
Although August Saud undergo surgery rejected the treatment he had received, eased him some pain, so much that he started to regain some of the responsibilities in the management of the affairs of the country formerly entrusted to his son, and began to give up on a wheelchair, which he used constantly, touring very comfortable and knees completely Mstqimitan .

King Abdul Aziz support national and Arab issues

Stop Prince Rashed Al Khuzai clearly and strongly with the founder, King Abdul-Aziz Al Saud’s efforts to unify the Arabian Peninsula under Saudi Arabia’s name and cleansed of colonialism and Zionism and Freemasonry customers and as a result was to the King Abdul Aziz Al Saud excellent relations, especially with the Emir, Sheikh Rashid al-Khuzai, a Arab prince and leader is founding of many nationalist movements in the Arab and Islamic worlds, best known Bmnahith British mandate in the Levant and support to the Palestinian and Libyan revolution also known for his opposition to openly revolt against the Jordanian monarchy since the arrival of Sharif Hussein bin Ali’s family and King Abdullah I to the Emirate of Transjordan that descended Prince Rashid al-Khuzai of Jordanian Alfrehat tribe that ruled a large area of ​​the Levant, including some parts of Palestine and of course Jordan period of Ottoman rule, before the arrival of Sharif Hussein bin Ali family Hashemi of Jordan at the time was led by the Prince Rashed Al Khuzai time Amir Snjqah Ajloun as He was called, where the rule of Prince Rashed Al Khuzai area of ​​the Emirate of Transjordan in addition to parts of Palestine during the period of Ottoman rule, and King Abdul Aziz Al Saud support the struggling Prince Rashed Al Khuzai direct and strong support by hugging him and give him protection for his family and his followers Senate and hosted for several years since 1937, and has become Prince Rashed Al Khuzai and his family and elders and leaders loyal to him at that time political refugees at the King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman bin Faisal Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia fever and the newly united and came directly monument to the revolution Mujahid Sheikh Izz al-Din al-Qassam in Palestine in 1935.

His death

King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud, died of his palace in Taif province of the region of Mecca in time: 4:36. Monday 1373H \ November 9, 1953 m. After the verdict lasted fifty-two years and reached the age of 77 Snh.ather a heart attack after suffering from hardening of the artery disease [26], and peace be upon the Hawiye [3] and then his body was transferred from Taif Airport to Riyadh, the old airport, where his body was transferred to the Eid prayer in Riyadh as performed by the Dead prayers again after Maghrib prayer and then transferred to Al Oud cemetery.

Souvenir photo Palace box in the Saudi capital Riyadh on the middle of the month of April 1948 m- month welcomed the year 1367 AH archive Bulletin of the World Geography

Inherit judgment

King Abdul Aziz, the father of all the kings of Saudi Arabia, who are successors since 1953, from King Saud and King Faisal and King Khalid and King Fahd and King Abdullah and then King Salman. While serving as the crown prince, Prince Mohammed bin Nayef bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the position of the mandate of the crown prince, Prince Mohammed bin Salman bin Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, a grandson of King Abdulaziz. Article II of the Basic Law of the number (a / 90) that the award shall be limited to the sons of the founder King Abdul Aziz bin Abdul Rahman Al-Faisal Al-Saud, and the children’s children, and that the selection of the fittest of them for judgment recommending members of the ruling his family council propriety in governance.

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